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Edition 2015  -    Machu Picchu Viajes----


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The ancestors of the Inca dynasty turned out in the area of Cusco approximately in 1200. There are at least two legends about advent of Incas. The most well known one narrates the story of Manco Capac and his sister-wife coming out of the immense waters of the Titicaca lake on the Peruvian-Bolivian highlands. This legend was recorded by a mestizo chronicles writer Garcilaso de la Vega. According to modern historians he has slightly transformed the ancient myth to the European taste.

The second legend, which is less known to wide audience, according to a competent researcher Maria Rostworowski, is more closer to the Andean mythology. It tells about four Ayar brothers - Uchu, Manco, Cachi and Auca, who used to live in the cave on the mountain Tampu Tocco, close to the settlement of Pacaritambo (in the Quecha language, language of the Incas, - «the house of daybreak») which is 33 km away from Cusco.

So the four Ayar brothers accompanied by their four sisters-wives came out of the cave Capac Toco in search of better land for living. Their travellings lasted for some years and it used to be interrupted by wars with local tribes, and quarrels between the brothers, so only one Ayar Manco finally reached the place, where Cusco was built. It was him, according to the legend, who became the forefather of the Incas dynasty having changed his name to Manco Capac.

The Ayar brothers – heroes of myths. One can speak about historically real people starting only from Viracocha, father of the legendary Inca Pachacutec, with whom the previous history of Cuaco is connected.

Pachacutec (at that time he was called Cusi Yupanqui) was one of the sons of Inca Viracocha, not the most favourable one, but already famous for his intellect and courage. In spite of this, after one of not very successful military campaign, Viracocha passe the reins of government to another son – Urco, and he himself retired to his palace not far from Cusco.

Urco began enjoying all the benefits of his position with pleasure, having neglected the state affairs. Such behaviour of the new ruler aroused displeasure of military leaders, who would have preferred to see Cusi Yupanqui at that post.

Political tension and social problems, caused by Urco's inability to rule, coincided with the decision of main Incas enemies – Chancas – to attack Cusco. At that time Incas were not yet so powerful and Chancas could fight against them. Urco was not ready to defend his people and together with his father and numerous family ran away from the enemy. And it was young Cusi Yupanqui, supported by the loyal to him military, rose to defend the capital.

His position was difficult. Cusi Yupanqui asked for help from his neighbouring ally tribes, but those, aware of treason of Urco and Viracocha, did not dare to support the defenders of Cusco. So they had only to rely on their own strength. When Chancas rulers learned that only young prince remained in Cusco, they sent him a humiliating letter: they say, we give you three months to resume your strength, otherwise it is not worth fighting with you. However, when the invaders attacked Cusco, they unexpectedly met with a well organised repulse. But still the strength was unequal. When the defenders rows began to drastically dwindle, the chief priest of the Sun Topa Wanchire decided to dress the stones into a complete military uniform, so that, from the distance, the enemy could take them for real army and got frightened. And now, as the legend says, when Cusi Yupanqui let out a militant cry, the stones turned into real warriors and put the enemy to flight.

Of course, one can believe in the legend where stones come alive, but most likely, the young prince opposed his military and organisational skills to a numerous enemy's army. After so glorious a victory, the authority of Cusi Yupanqui has grown even more, and he was given a name of Pachacutec (in the Quecha language - «the one who changes the world»).

And now, apparently, Pachacutec was to become a Great Inca. But Viracocha by no means wanted to pass this title to him, moreover, together with Urco he conspired against the prince. And then, Pachacuted was forced to stand against his brother with weapon in hands. As a result, Urco was executed and Pachacutec, as he deserved, was named a new Great Inca.

In this story all those features that made Cusi Yupanqui a great one, were revealed: unusual managerial abilities, rigidity and at the same time flexibility, while dealing with important issues, great ambitions and exact awareness of his goals and means how to achieve those.

The period of rule of Pachacutec (1438 – 1471), his son Tupac Inca Yupanqui (1471 – 1493) and grandson Huayna Capac (1493-1527) became a golden era for the Empire. It is in this period that the country reached its maximum development both in the territorial and political-economical aspect.







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